• # Paper 1, Section II, G

Define what it means for a sequence of functions $f_{n}:[0,1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ to converge uniformly on $[0,1]$ to a function $f$.

Let $f_{n}(x)=n^{p} x e^{-n^{q} x}$, where $p, q$ are positive constants. Determine all the values of $(p, q)$ for which $f_{n}(x)$ converges pointwise on $[0,1]$. Determine all the values of $(p, q)$ for which $f_{n}(x)$ converges uniformly on $[0,1]$.

Let now $f_{n}(x)=e^{-n x^{2}}$. Determine whether or not $f_{n}$ converges uniformly on $[0,1]$.

Let $f:[0,1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a continuous function. Show that the sequence $x^{n} f(x)$ is uniformly convergent on $[0,1]$ if and only if $f(1)=0$.

[If you use any theorems about uniform convergence, you should prove these.]

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• # Paper 2, Section I, G

Show that the map $f: \mathbb{R}^{3} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{3}$ given by

$f(x, y, z)=\left(x-y-z, x^{2}+y^{2}+z^{2}, x y z\right)$

is differentiable everywhere and find its derivative.

Stating accurately any theorem that you require, show that $f$ has a differentiable local inverse at a point $(x, y, z)$ if and only if

$(x+y)(x+z)(y-z) \neq 0 .$

\begin{aligned} & p(f)=\sup |f|, \quad q(f)=\sup \left(|f|+\left|f^{\prime}\right|\right), \\ & r(f)=\sup \left|f^{\prime}\right|, \quad s(f)=\left|\int_{-1}^{1} f(x) d x\right| \end{aligned}

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• # Paper 2, Section II, G

Let $E, F$ be normed spaces with norms $\|\cdot\|_{E},\|\cdot\|_{F}$. Show that for a map $f: E \rightarrow F$ and $a \in E$, the following two statements are equivalent:

(i) For every given $\varepsilon>0$ there exists $\delta>0$ such that $\|f(x)-f(a)\|_{F}<\varepsilon$ whenever $\|x-a\|_{E}<\delta$

(ii) $f\left(x_{n}\right) \rightarrow f(a)$ for each sequence $x_{n} \rightarrow a$.

We say that $f$ is continuous at $a$ if (i), or equivalently (ii), holds.

Let now $\left(E,\|\cdot\|_{E}\right)$ be a normed space. Let $A \subset E$ be a non-empty closed subset and define $d(x, A)=\inf \left\{\|x-a\|_{E}: a \in A\right\}$. Show that

$|d(x, A)-d(y, A)| \leqslant\|x-y\|_{E} \text { for all } x, y \in E .$

In the case when $E=\mathbb{R}^{n}$ with the standard Euclidean norm, show that there exists $a \in A$ such that $d(x, A)=\|x-a\|$.

Let $A, B$ be two disjoint closed sets in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$. Must there exist disjoint open sets $U, V$ such that $A \subset U$ and $B \subset V$ ? Must there exist $a \in A$ and $b \in B$ such that $d(a, b) \leqslant d(x, y)$ for all $x \in A$ and $y \in B$ ? For each answer, give a proof or counterexample as appropriate.

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• # Paper 3, Section I, G

Define what is meant by a uniformly continuous function $f$ on a subset $E$ of a metric space. Show that every continuous function on a closed, bounded interval is uniformly continuous. [You may assume the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem.]

Suppose that a function $g:[0, \infty) \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is continuous and tends to a finite limit at $\infty$. Is $g$ necessarily uniformly continuous on $[0, \infty) ?$ Give a proof or a counterexample as appropriate.

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• # Paper 3, Section II, G

Define what it means for a function $f: \mathbb{R}^{n} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{m}$ to be differentiable at $x \in \mathbb{R}^{n}$ with derivative $D f(x)$.

State and prove the chain rule for the derivative of $g \circ f$, where $g: \mathbb{R}^{m} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{p}$ is a differentiable function.

Now let $f: \mathbb{R}^{2} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a differentiable function and let $g(x)=f(x, c-x)$ where $c$ is a constant. Show that $g$ is differentiable and find its derivative in terms of the partial derivatives of $f$. Show that if $D_{1} f(x, y)=D_{2} f(x, y)$ holds everywhere in $\mathbb{R}^{2}$, then $f(x, y)=h(x+y)$ for some differentiable function $h .$

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• # Paper 4, Section I, G

Define what is meant for two norms on a vector space to be Lipschitz equivalent.

Let $C_{c}^{1}([-1,1])$ denote the vector space of continuous functions $f:[-1,1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ with continuous first derivatives and such that $f(x)=0$ for $x$ in some neighbourhood of the end-points $-1$ and 1 . Which of the following four functions $C_{c}^{1}([-1,1]) \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ define norms on $C_{c}^{1}([-1,1])$ (give a brief explanation)?

Among those that define norms, which pairs are Lipschitz equivalent? Justify your answer.

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• # Paper 4, Section II, G

Consider the space $\ell^{\infty}$ of bounded real sequences $x=\left(x_{i}\right)_{i=1}^{\infty}$ with the norm $\|x\|_{\infty}=\sup _{i}\left|x_{i}\right|$. Show that for every bounded sequence $x^{(n)}$ in $\ell^{\infty}$ there is a subsequence $x^{\left(n_{j}\right)}$ which converges in every coordinate, i.e. the sequence $\left(x_{i}^{\left(n_{j}\right)}\right)_{j=1}^{\infty}$ of real numbers converges for each $i$. Does every bounded sequence in $\ell^{\infty}$ have a convergent subsequence? Justify your answer.

Let $\ell^{1} \subset \ell^{\infty}$ be the subspace of real sequences $x=\left(x_{i}\right)_{i=1}^{\infty}$ such that $\sum_{i=1}^{\infty}\left|x_{i}\right|$ converges. Is $\ell^{1}$ complete in the norm $\|\cdot\|_{\infty}$ (restricted from $\ell^{\infty}$ to $\left.\ell^{1}\right)$ ? Justify your answer.

Suppose that $\left(x_{i}\right)$ is a real sequence such that, for every $\left(y_{i}\right) \in \ell^{\infty}$, the series $\sum_{i=1}^{\infty} x_{i} y_{i}$ converges. Show that $\left(x_{i}\right) \in \ell^{1} .$

Suppose now that $\left(x_{i}\right)$ is a real sequence such that, for every $\left(y_{i}\right) \in \ell^{1}$, the series $\sum_{i=1}^{\infty} x_{i} y_{i}$ converges. Show that $\left(x_{i}\right) \in \ell^{\infty} .$

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• # Paper 3, Section II, G

State the argument principle.

Let $U \subset \mathbb{C}$ be an open set and $f: U \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ a holomorphic injective function. Show that $f^{\prime}(z) \neq 0$ for each $z$ in $U$ and that $f(U)$ is open.

Stating clearly any theorems that you require, show that for each $a \in U$ and a sufficiently small $r>0$,

$g(w)=\frac{1}{2 \pi i} \int_{|z-a|=r} \frac{z f^{\prime}(z)}{f(z)-w} d z$

defines a holomorphic function on some open disc $D$ about $f(a)$.

Show that $g$ is the inverse for the restriction of $f$ to $g(D)$.

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• # Paper 4, Section I, G

Let $f$ be a continuous function defined on a connected open set $D \subset \mathbb{C}$. Prove carefully that the following statements are equivalent.

(i) There exists a holomorphic function $F$ on $D$ such that $F^{\prime}(z)=f(z)$.

(ii) $\int_{\gamma} f(z) d z=0$ holds for every closed curve $\gamma$ in $D$.

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• # Paper 1, Section I, B

Consider the analytic (holomorphic) functions $f$ and $g$ on a nonempty domain $\Omega$ where $g$ is nowhere zero. Prove that if $|f(z)|=|g(z)|$ for all $z$ in $\Omega$ then there exists a real constant $\alpha$ such that $f(z)=e^{i \alpha} g(z)$ for all $z$ in $\Omega$.

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• # Paper 1, Section II, B

(i) Show that transformations of the complex plane of the form

$\zeta=\frac{a z+b}{c z+d}$

always map circles and lines to circles and lines, where $a, b, c$ and $d$ are complex numbers such that $a d-b c \neq 0$.

(ii) Show that the transformation

$\zeta=\frac{z-\alpha}{\bar{\alpha} z-1}, \quad|\alpha|<1$

maps the unit disk centered at $z=0$ onto itself.

(iii) Deduce a conformal transformation that maps the non-concentric annular domain $\Omega=\{|z|<1,|z-c|>c\}, 0, to a concentric annular domain.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, B

(i) A function $f(z)$ has a pole of order $m$ at $z=z_{0}$. Derive a general expression for the residue of $f(z)$ at $z=z_{0}$ involving $f$ and its derivatives.

(ii) Using contour integration along a contour in the upper half-plane, determine the value of the integral

$I=\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{(\ln x)^{2}}{\left(1+x^{2}\right)^{2}} \mathrm{~d} x$

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• # Paper 3, Section I, B

Find the Fourier transform of the function

$f(x)=\frac{1}{1+x^{2}}, \quad x \in \mathbb{R}$

using an appropriate contour integration. Hence find the Fourier transform of its derivative, $f^{\prime}(x)$, and evaluate the integral

$I=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \frac{4 x^{2}}{\left(1+x^{2}\right)^{4}} d x$

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• # Paper 4, Section II, B

(i) State and prove the convolution theorem for Laplace transforms of two realvalued functions.

(ii) Let the function $f(t), t \geqslant 0$, be equal to 1 for $0 \leqslant t \leqslant a$ and zero otherwise, where $a$ is a positive parameter. Calculate the Laplace transform of $f$. Hence deduce the Laplace transform of the convolution $g=f * f$. Invert this Laplace transform to obtain an explicit expression for $g(t)$.

[Hint: You may use the notation $\left.(t-a)_{+}=H(t-a) \cdot(t-a) .\right]$

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• # Paper 1, Section II, A

(i) Write down the Lorentz force law for $d \mathbf{p} / d t$ due to an electric field $\mathbf{E}$ and magnetic field $\mathbf{B}$ acting on a particle of charge $q$ moving with velocity $\dot{\mathbf{x}}$.

(ii) Write down Maxwell's equations in terms of $c$ (the speed of light in a vacuum), in the absence of charges and currents.

(iii) Show that they can be manipulated into a wave equation for each component of $\mathbf{E}$.

(iv) Show that Maxwell's equations admit solutions of the form

$\mathbf{E}(\mathbf{x}, t)=\operatorname{Re}\left(\mathbf{E}_{0} e^{i(\omega t-\mathbf{k} \cdot \mathbf{x})}\right)$

where $\mathbf{E}_{\mathbf{0}}$ and $\mathbf{k}$ are constant vectors and $\omega$ is a constant (all real). Derive a condition on $\mathbf{k} \cdot \mathbf{E}_{\mathbf{0}}$ and relate $\omega$ and $\mathbf{k}$.

(v) Suppose that a perfect conductor occupies the region $z<0$ and that a plane wave with $\mathbf{k}=(0,0,-k), \mathbf{E}_{0}=\left(E_{0}, 0,0\right)$ is incident from the vacuum region $z>0$. Write down boundary conditions for the $\mathbf{E}$ and $\mathbf{B}$ fields. Show that they can be satisfied if a suitable reflected wave is present, and determine the total $\mathbf{E}$ and $\mathbf{B}$ fields in real form.

(vi) At time $t=\pi /(4 \omega)$, a particle of charge $q$ and mass $m$ is at $(0,0, \pi /(4 k))$ moving with velocity $(c / 2,0,0)$. You may assume that the particle is far enough away from the conductor so that we can ignore its effect upon the conductor and that $q E_{0}>0$. Give a unit vector for the direction of the Lorentz force on the particle at time $t=\pi /(4 \omega)$.

(vii) Ignoring relativistic effects, find the magnitude of the particle's rate of change of velocity in terms of $E_{0}, q$ and $m$ at time $t=\pi /(4 \omega)$. Why is this answer inaccurate?

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• # Paper 2, Section I, A

In a constant electric field $\mathbf{E}=(E, 0,0)$ a particle of rest mass $m$ and charge $q>0$ has position $\mathbf{x}$ and velocity $\dot{\mathbf{x}}$. At time $t=0$, the particle is at rest at the origin. Including relativistic effects, calculate $\dot{\mathbf{x}}(t)$.

Sketch a graph of $|\dot{\mathbf{x}}(t)|$ versus $t$, commenting on the $t \rightarrow \infty$ limit.

Calculate $|\mathbf{x}(t)|$ as an explicit function of $t$ and find the non-relativistic limit at small times $t$.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, A

Consider the magnetic field

$\mathbf{B}=b[\mathbf{r}+(k \hat{\mathbf{z}}+l \hat{\mathbf{y}}) \hat{\mathbf{z}} \cdot \mathbf{r}+p \hat{\mathbf{x}}(\hat{\mathbf{y}} \cdot \mathbf{r})+n \hat{\mathbf{z}}(\hat{\mathbf{x}} \cdot \mathbf{r})],$

where $b \neq 0, \mathbf{r}=(x, y, z)$ and $\hat{\mathbf{x}}, \hat{\mathbf{y}}, \hat{\mathbf{z}}$ are unit vectors in the $x, y$ and $z$ directions, respectively. Imposing that this satisfies the expected equations for a static magnetic field in a vacuum, find $k, l, n$ and $p$.

A circular wire loop of radius $a$, mass $m$ and resistance $R$ lies in the $(x, y)$ plane with its centre on the $z$-axis at $z$ and a magnetic field as given above. Calculate the magnetic flux through the loop arising from this magnetic field and also the force acting on the loop when a current $I$ is flowing around the loop in a clockwise direction about the $z$-axis.

At $t=0$, the centre of the loop is at the origin, travelling with velocity $(0,0, v(t=0))$, where $v(0)>0$. Ignoring gravity and relativistic effects, and assuming that $I$ is only the induced current, find the time taken for the speed to halve in terms of $a, b, R$ and $m$. By what factor does the rate of heat generation change in this time?

Where is the loop as $t \rightarrow \infty$ as a function of $a, b, R, v(0) ?$

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• # Paper 3, Section II, A

A charge density $\rho=\lambda / r$ fills the region of 3-dimensional space $a, where $r$ is the radial distance from the origin and $\lambda$ is a constant. Compute the electric field in all regions of space in terms of $Q$, the total charge of the region. Sketch a graph of the magnitude of the electric field versus $r$ (assuming that $Q>0$ ).

Now let $\Delta=b-a \rightarrow 0$. Derive the surface charge density $\sigma$ in terms of $\Delta, a$ and $\lambda$ and explain how a finite surface charge density may be obtained in this limit. Sketch the magnitude of the electric field versus $r$ in this limit. Comment on any discontinuities, checking a standard result involving $\sigma$ for this particular case.

A second shell of equal and opposite total charge is centred on the origin and has a radius $c. Sketch the electric potential of this system, assuming that it tends to 0 as $r \rightarrow \infty$.

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• # Paper 4, Section I, A

From Maxwell's equations, derive the Biot-Savart law

$\mathbf{B}(\mathbf{r})=\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi} \int_{V} \frac{\mathbf{J}\left(\mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right) \times\left(\mathbf{r}-\mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right)}{\left|\mathbf{r}-\mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right|^{3}} d^{3} \mathbf{r}^{\prime}$

giving the magnetic field $\mathbf{B}(\mathbf{r})$ produced by a steady current density $\mathbf{J}(\mathbf{r})$ that vanishes outside a bounded region $V$.

[You may assume that you can choose a gauge such that the divergence of the magnetic vector potential is zero.]

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• # Paper 1, Section I, B

Consider a spherical bubble of radius $a$ in an inviscid fluid in the absence of gravity. The flow at infinity is at rest and the bubble undergoes translation with velocity $\mathbf{U}=U(t) \hat{\mathbf{x}}$. We assume that the flow is irrotational and derives from a potential given in spherical coordinates by

$\phi(r, \theta)=U(t) \frac{a^{3}}{2 r^{2}} \cos \theta,$

where $\theta$ is measured with respect to $\hat{\mathbf{x}}$. Compute the force, $\mathbf{F}$, acting on the bubble. Show that the formula for $\mathbf{F}$ can be interpreted as the acceleration force of a fraction $\alpha<1$ of the fluid displaced by the bubble, and determine the value of $\alpha$.

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• # Paper 1, Section II, B

A fluid layer of depth $h_{1}$ and dynamic viscosity $\mu_{1}$ is located underneath a fluid layer of depth $h_{2}$ and dynamic viscosity $\mu_{2}$. The total fluid system of depth $h=h_{1}+h_{2}$ is positioned between a stationary rigid plate at $y=0$ and a rigid plate at $y=h$ moving with speed $\mathbf{U}=U \hat{\mathbf{x}}$, where $U$ is constant. Ignore the effects of gravity.

(i) Using dimensional analysis only, and the fact that the stress should be linear in $U$, derive the expected form of the shear stress acted by the fluid on the plate at $y=0$ as a function of $U, h_{1}, h_{2}, \mu_{1}$ and $\mu_{2}$.

(ii) Solve for the unidirectional velocity profile between the two plates. State clearly all boundary conditions you are using to solve this problem.

(iii) Compute the exact value of the shear stress acted by the fluid on the plate at $y=0$. Compare with the results in (i).

(iv) What is the condition on the viscosity of the bottom layer, $\mu_{1}$, for the stress in (iii) to be smaller than it would be if the fluid had constant viscosity $\mu_{2}$ in both layers?

(v) Show that the stress acting on the plate at $y=h$ is equal and opposite to the stress on the plate at $y=0$ and justify this result physically.

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• # Paper 2, Section I, B

Consider the two-dimensional velocity field $\mathbf{u}=(u, v)$ with

$u(x, y)=x^{2}-y^{2}, \quad v(x, y)=-2 x y$

(i) Show that the flow is incompressible and irrotational.

(ii) Derive the velocity potential, $\phi$, and the streamfunction, $\psi$.

(iii) Plot all streamlines passing through the origin.

(iv) Show that the complex function $w=\phi+i \psi$ (where $i^{2}=-1$ ) can be written solely as a function of the complex coordinate $z=x+i y$ and determine that function.

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• # Paper 3, Section II, B

A source of sound induces a travelling wave of pressure above the free surface of a fluid located in the $z<0$ domain as

$p=p_{a t m}+p_{0} \cos (k x-\omega t),$

with $p_{0} \ll p_{a t m}$. Here $k$ and $\omega$ are fixed real numbers. We assume that the flow induced in the fluid is irrotational.

(i) State the linearized equation of motion for the fluid and the free surface, $z=h(x, t)$, with all boundary conditions.

(ii) Solve for the velocity potential, $\phi(x, z, t)$, and the height of the free surface, $h(x, t)$. Verify that your solutions are dimensionally correct.

(iii) Interpret physically the behaviour of the solution when $\omega^{2}=g k$.

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• # Paper 4, Section II, B

Consider a steady inviscid, incompressible fluid of constant density $\rho$ in the absence of external body forces. A cylindrical jet of area $A$ and speed $U$ impinges fully on a stationary sphere of radius $R$ with $A<\pi R^{2}$. The flow is assumed to remain axisymmetric and be deflected into a conical sheet of vertex angle $\alpha>0$.

(i) Show that the speed of the fluid in the conical sheet is constant.

(ii) Use conservation of mass to show that the width $d(r)$ of the fluid sheet at a distance $r \gg R$ from point of impact is given by

$d(r)=\frac{A}{2 \pi r \sin \alpha}$

(iii) Use Euler's equation to derive the momentum integral equation

$\iint_{S}\left(p n_{i}+\rho n_{j} u_{j} u_{i}\right) d S=0$

for a closed surface $S$ with normal $\mathbf{n}$ where $u_{m}$ is the $m$ th component of the velocity field in cartesian coordinates and $p$ is the pressure.

(iv) Use the result from (iii) to calculate the net force on the sphere.

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• # Paper 1, Section I, F

(i) Give a model for the hyperbolic plane. In this choice of model, describe hyperbolic lines.

Show that if $\ell_{1}, \ell_{2}$ are two hyperbolic lines and $p_{1} \in \ell_{1}, p_{2} \in \ell_{2}$ are points, then there exists an isometry $g$ of the hyperbolic plane such that $g\left(\ell_{1}\right)=\ell_{2}$ and $g\left(p_{1}\right)=p_{2}$.

(ii) Let $T$ be a triangle in the hyperbolic plane with angles $30^{\circ}, 30^{\circ}$ and $45^{\circ}$. What is the area of $T$ ?

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• # Paper 2, Section II, F

(a) For each of the following subsets of $\mathbb{R}^{3}$, explain briefly why it is a smooth embedded surface or why it is not.

\begin{aligned} S_{1} &=\{(x, y, z) \mid x=y, z=3\} \cup\{(2,3,0)\} \\ S_{2} &=\left\{(x, y, z) \mid x^{2}+y^{2}-z^{2}=1\right\} \\ S_{3} &=\left\{(x, y, z) \mid x^{2}+y^{2}-z^{2}=0\right\} \end{aligned}

(b) Let $f: U=\{(u, v) \mid v>0\} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{3}$ be given by

$f(u, v)=\left(u^{2}, u v, v\right),$

and let $S=f(U) \subseteq \mathbb{R}^{3}$. You may assume that $S$ is a smooth embedded surface.

Find the first fundamental form of this surface.

Find the second fundamental form of this surface.

Compute the Gaussian curvature of this surface.

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• # Paper 3, Section $I$, F

State the sine rule for spherical triangles.

Let $\Delta$ be a spherical triangle with vertices $A, B$, and $C$, with angles $\alpha, \beta$ and $\gamma$ at the respective vertices. Let $a, b$, and $c$ be the lengths of the edges $B C, A C$ and $A B$ respectively. Show that $b=c$ if and only if $\beta=\gamma$. [You may use the cosine rule for spherical triangles.] Show that this holds if and only if there exists a reflection $M$ such that $M(A)=A, M(B)=C$ and $M(C)=B$.

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• # Paper 3, Section II, F

Let $T: \mathbb{C}_{\infty} \rightarrow \mathbb{C}_{\infty}$ be a Möbius transformation on the Riemann sphere $\mathbb{C}_{\infty}$.

(i) Show that $T$ has either one or two fixed points.

(ii) Show that if $T$ is a Möbius transformation corresponding to (under stereographic projection) a rotation of $S^{2}$ through some fixed non-zero angle, then $T$ has two fixed points, $z_{1}, z_{2}$, with $z_{2}=-1 / \bar{z}_{1}$.

(iii) Suppose $T$ has two fixed points $z_{1}, z_{2}$ with $z_{2}=-1 / \bar{z}_{1}$. Show that either $T$ corresponds to a rotation as in (ii), or one of the fixed points, say $z_{1}$, is attractive, i.e. $T^{n} z \rightarrow z_{1}$ as $n \rightarrow \infty$ for any $z \neq z_{2}$.

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• # Paper 4, Section II, F

Let $\alpha(s)=(f(s), g(s))$ be a curve in $\mathbb{R}^{2}$ parameterized by arc length, and consider the surface of revolution $S$ in $\mathbb{R}^{3}$ defined by the parameterization

$\sigma(u, v)=(f(u) \cos v, f(u) \sin v, g(u))$

In what follows, you may use that a curve $\sigma \circ \gamma$ in $S$, with $\gamma(t)=(u(t), v(t))$, is a geodesic if and only if

$\ddot{u}=f(u) \frac{d f}{d u} \dot{v}^{2}, \quad \frac{d}{d t}\left(f(u)^{2} \dot{v}\right)=0$

(i) Write down the first fundamental form for $S$, and use this to write down a formula which is equivalent to $\sigma \circ \gamma$ being a unit speed curve.

(ii) Show that for a given $u_{0}$, the circle on $S$ determined by $u=u_{0}$ is a geodesic if and only if $\frac{d f}{d u}\left(u_{0}\right)=0$.

(iii) Let $\gamma(t)=(u(t), v(t))$ be a curve in $\mathbb{R}^{2}$ such that $\sigma \circ \gamma$ parameterizes a unit speed curve that is a geodesic in $S$. For a given time $t_{0}$, let $\theta\left(t_{0}\right)$ denote the angle between the curve $\sigma \circ \gamma$ and the circle on $S$ determined by $u=u\left(t_{0}\right)$. Derive Clairault's relation that

$f(u(t)) \cos (\theta(t))$

is independent of $t$.

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• # Paper 1, Section II, F

(i) Give the definition of a $p$-Sylow subgroup of a group.

(ii) Let $G$ be a group of order $2835=3^{4} \cdot 5 \cdot 7$. Show that there are at most two possibilities for the number of 3-Sylow subgroups, and give the possible numbers of 3-Sylow subgroups.

(iii) Continuing with a group $G$ of order 2835 , show that $G$ is not simple.

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• # Paper 2, Section $I$, $2 F$

Give four non-isomorphic groups of order 12 , and explain why they are not isomorphic.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, F

(a) Consider the homomorphism $f: \mathbb{Z}^{3} \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}^{4}$ given by

$f(a, b, c)=(a+2 b+8 c, 2 a-2 b+4 c,-2 b+12 c, 2 a-4 b+4 c)$

Describe the image of this homomorphism as an abstract abelian group. Describe the quotient of $\mathbb{Z}^{4}$ by the image of this homomorphism as an abstract abelian group.

(b) Give the definition of a Euclidean domain.

Fix a prime $p$ and consider the subring $R$ of the rational numbers $\mathbb{Q}$ defined by

$R=\{q / r \mid \operatorname{gcd}(p, r)=1\}$

where 'gcd' stands for the greatest common divisor. Show that $R$ is a Euclidean domain.

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• # Paper 3, Section I, F

State two equivalent conditions for a commutative ring to be Noetherian, and prove they are equivalent. Give an example of a ring which is not Noetherian, and explain why it is not Noetherian.

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• # Paper 3, Section II, F

Can a group of order 55 have 20 elements of order 11? If so, give an example. If not, give a proof, including the proof of any statements you need.

Let $G$ be a group of order $p q$, with $p$ and $q$ primes, $p>q$. Suppose furthermore that $q$ does not divide $p-1$. Show that $G$ is cyclic.

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• # Paper 4, Section I, $2 F$

Let $R$ be a commutative ring. Define what it means for an ideal $I \subseteq R$ to be prime. Show that $I \subseteq R$ is prime if and only if $R / I$ is an integral domain.

Give an example of an integral domain $R$ and an ideal $I \subset R, I \neq R$, such that $R / I$ is not an integral domain.

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• # Paper 4, Section II, F

Find $a \in \mathbb{Z}_{7}$ such that $\mathbb{Z}_{7}[x] /\left(x^{3}+a\right)$ is a field $F$. Show that for your choice of $a$, every element of $\mathbb{Z}_{7}$ has a cube root in the field $F$.

Show that if $F$ is a finite field, then the multiplicative group $F^{\times}=F \backslash\{0\}$ is cyclic.

Show that $F=\mathbb{Z}_{2}[x] /\left(x^{3}+x+1\right)$ is a field. How many elements does $F$ have? Find a generator for $F^{\times}$.

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• # Paper 1, Section I, E

Let $U$ and $V$ be finite dimensional vector spaces and $\alpha: U \rightarrow V$ a linear map. Suppose $W$ is a subspace of $U$. Prove that

$r(\alpha) \geqslant r\left(\left.\alpha\right|_{W}\right) \geqslant r(\alpha)-\operatorname{dim}(U)+\operatorname{dim}(W)$

where $r(\alpha)$ denotes the rank of $\alpha$ and $\left.\alpha\right|_{W}$ denotes the restriction of $\alpha$ to $W$. Give examples showing that each inequality can be both a strict inequality and an equality.

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• # Paper 1, Section II, E

Determine the characteristic polynomial of the matrix

$M=\left(\begin{array}{cccc} x & 1 & 1 & 0 \\ 1-x & 0 & -1 & 0 \\ 2 & 2 x & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \end{array}\right)$

For which values of $x \in \mathbb{C}$ is $M$ invertible? When $M$ is not invertible determine (i) the Jordan normal form $J$ of $M$, (ii) the minimal polynomial of $M$.

Find a basis of $\mathbb{C}^{4}$ such that $J$ is the matrix representing the endomorphism $M: \mathbb{C}^{4} \rightarrow \mathbb{C}^{4}$ in this basis. Give a change of basis matrix $P$ such that $P^{-1} M P=J$.

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• # Paper 2, Section I, $1 \mathrm{E}$

Let $q$ denote a quadratic form on a real vector space $V$. Define the rank and signature of $q$.

Find the rank and signature of the following quadratic forms. (a) $q(x, y, z)=x^{2}+y^{2}+z^{2}-2 x z-2 y z$. (b) $q(x, y, z)=x y-x z$.

(c) $q(x, y, z)=x y-2 z^{2}$.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, E

(i) Suppose $A$ is a matrix that does not have $-1$ as an eigenvalue. Show that $A+I$ is non-singular. Further, show that $A$ commutes with $(A+I)^{-1}$.

(ii) A matrix $A$ is called skew-symmetric if $A^{T}=-A$. Show that a real skewsymmetric matrix does not have $-1$ as an eigenvalue.

(iii) Suppose $A$ is a real skew-symmetric matrix. Show that $U=(I-A)(I+A)^{-1}$ is orthogonal with determinant 1 .

(iv) Verify that every orthogonal matrix $U$ with determinant 1 which does not have $-1$ as an eigenvalue can be expressed as $(I-A)(I+A)^{-1}$ where $A$ is a real skew-symmetric matrix.

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• # Paper 3, Section II, E

Let $A_{1}, A_{2}, \ldots, A_{k}$ be $n \times n$ matrices over a field $\mathbb{F}$. We say $A_{1}, A_{2}, \ldots, A_{k}$ are simultaneously diagonalisable if there exists an invertible matrix $P$ such that $P^{-1} A_{i} P$ is diagonal for all $1 \leqslant i \leqslant k$. We say the matrices are commuting if $A_{i} A_{j}=A_{j} A_{i}$ for all $i, j$.

(i) Suppose $A_{1}, A_{2}, \ldots, A_{k}$ are simultaneously diagonalisable. Prove that they are commuting.

(ii) Define an eigenspace of a matrix. Suppose $B_{1}, B_{2}, \ldots, B_{k}$ are commuting $n \times n$ matrices over a field $\mathbb{F}$. Let $E$ denote an eigenspace of $B_{1}$. Prove that $B_{i}(E) \leqslant E$ for all $i$.

(iii) Suppose $B_{1}, B_{2}, \ldots, B_{k}$ are commuting diagonalisable matrices. Prove that they are simultaneously diagonalisable.

(iv) Are the $2 \times 2$ diagonalisable matrices over $\mathbb{C}$ simultaneously diagonalisable? Explain your answer.

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• # Paper 4, Section I, E

Define the dual space $V^{*}$ of a vector space $V$. Given a basis $\left\{x_{1}, \ldots, x_{n}\right\}$ of $V$ define its dual and show it is a basis of $V^{*}$.

Let $V$ be a 3-dimensional vector space over $\mathbb{R}$ and let $\left\{\zeta_{1}, \zeta_{2}, \zeta_{3}\right\}$ be the basis of $V^{*}$ dual to the basis $\left\{x_{1}, x_{2}, x_{3}\right\}$ for $V$. Determine, in terms of the $\zeta_{i}$, the bases dual to each of the following: (a) $\left\{x_{1}+x_{2}, x_{2}+x_{3}, x_{3}\right\}$, (b) $\left\{x_{1}+x_{2}, x_{2}+x_{3}, x_{3}+x_{1}\right\}$.

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• # Paper 4, Section II, E

Suppose $U$ and $W$ are subspaces of a vector space $V$. Explain what is meant by $U \cap W$ and $U+W$ and show that both of these are subspaces of $V$.

Show that if $U$ and $W$ are subspaces of a finite dimensional space $V$ then

$\operatorname{dim} U+\operatorname{dim} W=\operatorname{dim}(U \cap W)+\operatorname{dim}(U+W)$

Determine the dimension of the subspace $W$ of $\mathbb{R}^{5}$ spanned by the vectors

$\left(\begin{array}{c} 1 \\ 3 \\ 3 \\ -1 \\ 1 \end{array}\right),\left(\begin{array}{l} 4 \\ 1 \\ 3 \\ 2 \\ 1 \end{array}\right),\left(\begin{array}{l} 3 \\ 2 \\ 1 \\ 2 \\ 3 \end{array}\right),\left(\begin{array}{c} 2 \\ 2 \\ 5 \\ -1 \\ -1 \end{array}\right)$

Write down a $5 \times 5$ matrix which defines a linear map $\mathbb{R}^{5} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{5}$ with $(1,1,1,1,1)^{T}$ in the kernel and with image $W$.

What is the dimension of the space spanned by all linear maps $\mathbb{R}^{5} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{5}$

(i) with $(1,1,1,1,1)^{T}$ in the kernel and with image contained in $W$,

(ii) with $(1,1,1,1,1)^{T}$ in the kernel or with image contained in $W$ ?

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• # Paper 1, Section II, H

Consider a particle moving between the vertices of the graph below, taking steps along the edges. Let $X_{n}$ be the position of the particle at time $n$. At time $n+1$ the particle moves to one of the vertices adjoining $X_{n}$, with each of the adjoining vertices being equally likely, independently of previous moves. Explain briefly why $\left(X_{n} ; n \geqslant 0\right)$ is a Markov chain on the vertices. Is this chain irreducible? Find an invariant distribution for this chain.

Suppose that the particle starts at $B$. By adapting the transition matrix, or otherwise, find the probability that the particle hits vertex $A$ before vertex $F$.

Find the expected first passage time from $B$ to $F$ given no intermediate visit to $A$.

[Results from the course may be used without proof provided that they are clearly stated.]

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• # Paper 2, Section II, H

(a) What does it mean for a transition matrix $P$ and a distribution $\lambda$ to be in detailed balance? Show that if $P$ and $\lambda$ are in detailed balance then $\lambda=\lambda P$.

(b) A mathematician owns $r$ bicycles, which she sometimes uses for her journey from the station to College in the morning and for the return journey in the evening. If it is fine weather when she starts a journey, and if there is a bicycle available at the current location, then she cycles; otherwise she takes the bus. Assume that with probability $p$, $0, it is fine when she starts a journey, independently of all other journeys. Let $X_{n}$ denote the number of bicycles at the current location, just before the mathematician starts the $n$th journey.

(i) Show that $\left(X_{n} ; n \geqslant 0\right)$ is a Markov chain and write down its transition matrix.

(ii) Find the invariant distribution of the Markov chain.

(iii) Show that the Markov chain satisfies the necessary conditions for the convergence theorem for Markov chains and find the limiting probability that the mathematician's $n$th journey is by bicycle.

[Results from the course may be used without proof provided that they are clearly stated.]

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• # Paper 3, Section I, H

Define what is meant by a communicating class and a closed class in a Markov chain.

A Markov chain $\left(X_{n}: n \geqslant 0\right)$ with state space $\{1,2,3,4\}$ has transition matrix

$P=\left(\begin{array}{cccc} \frac{1}{2} & 0 & \frac{1}{2} & 0 \\ 0 & \frac{1}{2} & 0 & \frac{1}{2} \\ \frac{1}{2} & 0 & \frac{1}{2} & 0 \\ \frac{1}{2} & 0 & 0 & \frac{1}{2} \end{array}\right)$

Write down the communicating classes for this Markov chain and state whether or not each class is closed.

If $X_{0}=2$, let $N$ be the smallest $n$ such that $X_{n} \neq 2$. Find $\mathbb{P}(N=n)$ for $n=1,2, \ldots$ and $\mathbb{E}(N)$. Describe the evolution of the chain if $X_{0}=2$.

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• # Paper 4, Section I, H

Let $X_{0}, X_{1}, X_{2}, \ldots$ be independent identically distributed random variables with $\mathbb{P}\left(X_{i}=1\right)=1-\mathbb{P}\left(X_{i}=0\right)=p, 0. Let $Z_{n}=X_{n-1}+c X_{n}, n=1,2, \ldots$, where $c$ is a constant. For each of the following cases, determine whether or not $\left(Z_{n}: n \geqslant 1\right)$ is a Markov chain: (a) $c=0$; (b) $c=1$; (c) $c=2$.

In each case, if $\left(Z_{n}: n \geqslant 1\right)$ is a Markov chain, explain why, and give its state space and transition matrix; if it is not a Markov chain, give an example to demonstrate that it is not.

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• # Paper 1, Section II, C

(i) Briefly describe the Sturm-Liouville form of an eigenfunction equation for real valued functions with a linear, second-order ordinary differential operator. Briefly summarize the properties of the solutions.

(ii) Derive the condition for self-adjointness of the differential operator in (i) in terms of the boundary conditions of solutions $y_{1}, y_{2}$ to the Sturm-Liouville equation. Give at least three types of boundary conditions for which the condition for self-adjointness is satisfied.

(iii) Consider the inhomogeneous Sturm-Liouville equation with weighted linear term

$\frac{1}{w(x)} \frac{d}{d x}\left(p(x) \frac{d y}{d x}\right)-\frac{q(x)}{w(x)} y-\lambda y=f(x),$

on the interval $a \leqslant x \leqslant b$, where $p$ and $q$ are real functions on $[a, b]$ and $w$ is the weighting function. Let $G(x, \xi)$ be a Green's function satisfying

$\frac{d}{d x}\left(p(x) \frac{d G}{d x}\right)-q(x) G(x, \xi)=\delta(x-\xi)$

Let solutions $y$ and the Green's function $G$ satisfy the same boundary conditions of the form $\alpha y^{\prime}+\beta y=0$ at $x=a, \mu y^{\prime}+\nu y=0$ at $x=b(\alpha, \beta$ are not both zero and $\mu, \nu$ are not both zero) and likewise for $G$ for the same constants $\alpha, \beta, \mu$ and $\nu$. Show that the Sturm-Liouville equation can be written as a so-called Fredholm integral equation of the form

$\psi(\xi)=U(\xi)+\lambda \int_{a}^{b} K(x, \xi) \psi(x) d x$

where $K(x, \xi)=\sqrt{w(\xi) w(x)} G(x, \xi), \psi=\sqrt{w} y$ and $U$ depends on $K, w$ and the forcing term $f$. Write down $U$ in terms of an integral involving $f, K$ and $w$.

(iv) Derive the Fredholm integral equation for the Sturm-Liouville equation on the interval $[0,1]$

$\frac{d^{2} y}{d x^{2}}-\lambda y=0,$

with $y(0)=y(1)=0$.

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• # Paper 2, Section I, C

(i) Write down the trigonometric form for the Fourier series and its coefficients for a function $f:[-L, L) \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ extended to a $2 L$-periodic function on $\mathbb{R}$.

(ii) Calculate the Fourier series on $[-\pi, \pi)$ of the function $f(x)=\sin (\lambda x)$ where $\lambda$ is a real constant. Take the limit $\lambda \rightarrow k$ with $k \in \mathbb{Z}$ in the coefficients of this series and briefly interpret the resulting expression.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, C

(i) The Laplace operator in spherical coordinates is

$\vec{\nabla}^{2}=\frac{1}{r^{2}} \frac{\partial}{\partial r}\left(r^{2} \frac{\partial}{\partial r}\right)+\frac{1}{r^{2} \sin \theta} \frac{\partial}{\partial \theta}\left(\sin \theta \frac{\partial}{\partial \theta}\right)+\frac{1}{r^{2} \sin ^{2} \theta} \frac{\partial^{2}}{\partial \phi^{2}}$

Show that general, regular axisymmetric solutions $\psi(r, \theta)$ to the equation $\vec{\nabla}^{2} \psi=0$ are given by

$\psi(r, \theta)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\left(A_{n} r^{n}+B_{n} r^{-(n+1)}\right) P_{n}(\cos \theta)$

where $A_{n}, B_{n}$ are constants and $P_{n}$ are the Legendre polynomials. [You may use without proof that regular solutions to Legendre's equation $-\frac{d}{d x}\left[\left(1-x^{2}\right) \frac{d}{d x} y(x)\right]=\lambda y(x)$ are given by $P_{n}(x)$ with $\lambda=n(n+1)$ and non-negative integer $n$.]

(ii) Consider a uniformly charged wire in the form of a ring of infinitesimal width with radius $r_{0}=1$ and a constant charge per unit length $\sigma$. By Coulomb's law, the electric potential due to a point charge $q$ at a point a distance $d$ from the charge is

$U=\frac{q}{4 \pi \epsilon_{0} d}$

where $\epsilon_{0}$ is a constant. Let the $z$-axis be perpendicular to the circle and pass through the circle's centre (see figure). Show that the potential due to the charged ring at a point on the $z$-axis at location $z$ is given by

$V=\frac{\sigma}{2 \epsilon_{0} \sqrt{1+z^{2}}} .$

(iii) The potential $V$ generated by the charged ring of (ii) at arbitrary points (excluding points directly on the ring which can be ignored for this question) is determined by Laplace's equation $\vec{\nabla}^{2} V=0$. Calculate this potential with the boundary condition $\lim _{r \rightarrow \infty} V=0$, where $r=\sqrt{x^{2}+y^{2}+z^{2}}$. [You may use without proof that

$\frac{1}{\sqrt{1+x^{2}}}=\sum_{m=0}^{\infty} x^{2 m}(-1)^{m} \frac{(2 m) !}{2^{2 m}(m !)^{2}}$

for $|x|<1$. Furthermore, the Legendre polynomials are normalized such that $\left.P_{n}(1)=1 .\right]$

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• # Paper 3, Section I, $7 \mathrm{C}$

(a) From the defining property of the $\delta$ function,

$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \delta(x) f(x) d x=f(0)$

for any function $f$, prove that

(i) $\delta(-x)=\delta(x)$

(ii) $\delta(a x)=|a|^{-1} \delta(x)$ for $a \in \mathbb{R}, a \neq 0$,

(iii) If $g: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}, x \mapsto g(x)$ is smooth and has isolated zeros $x_{i}$ where the derivative $g^{\prime}\left(x_{i}\right) \neq 0$, then

$\delta[g(x)]=\sum_{i} \frac{\delta\left(x-x_{i}\right)}{\left|g^{\prime}\left(x_{i}\right)\right|}$

(b) Show that the function $\gamma(x)$ defined by

$\gamma(x)=\lim _{s \rightarrow 0} \frac{e^{x / s}}{s\left(1+e^{x / s}\right)^{2}}$

is the $\delta(x)$ function.

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• # Paper 3, Section II, C

(i) Consider the Poisson equation $\nabla^{2} \psi(\mathbf{r})=f(\mathbf{r})$ with forcing term $f$ on the infinite domain $\mathbb{R}^{3}$ with $\lim _{|\mathbf{r}| \rightarrow \infty} \psi=0$. Derive the Green's function $G\left(\mathbf{r}, \mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right)=-1 /\left(4 \pi\left|\mathbf{r}-\mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right|\right)$ for this equation using the divergence theorem. [You may assume without proof that the divergence theorem is valid for the Green's function.]

(ii) Consider the Helmholtz equation

$\tag{†} \nabla^{2} \psi(\mathbf{r})+k^{2} \psi(\mathbf{r})=f(\mathbf{r})$

where $k$ is a real constant. A Green's function $g\left(\mathbf{r}, \mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right)$ for this equation can be constructed from $G\left(\mathbf{r}, \mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right)$ of (i) by assuming $g\left(\mathbf{r}, \mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right)=U(r) G\left(\mathbf{r}, \mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right)$ where $r=\left|\mathbf{r}-\mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right|$ and $U(r)$ is a regular function. Show that $\lim _{r \rightarrow 0} U(r)=1$ and that $U$ satisfies the equation

$\tag{‡} \frac{d^{2} U}{d r^{2}}+k^{2} U(r)=0$

(iii) Take the Green's function with the specific solution $U(r)=e^{i k r}$ to Eq. ($‡$) and consider the Helmholtz equation $(†)$ on the semi-infinite domain $z>0, x, y \in \mathbb{R}$. Use the method of images to construct a Green's function for this problem that satisfies the boundary conditions

$\frac{\partial g}{\partial z^{\prime}}=0 \text { on } z^{\prime}=0 \quad \text { and } \quad \lim _{|\mathbf{r}| \rightarrow \infty} g\left(\mathbf{r}, \mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right)=0$

(iv) A solution to the Helmholtz equation on a bounded domain can be constructed in complete analogy to that of the Poisson equation using the Green's function in Green's 3rd identity

$\psi(\mathbf{r})=\int_{\partial V}\left[\psi\left(\mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right) \frac{\partial g\left(\mathbf{r}, \mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right)}{\partial n^{\prime}}-g\left(\mathbf{r}, \mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right) \frac{\partial \psi\left(\mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right)}{\partial n^{\prime}}\right] d S^{\prime}+\int_{V} f\left(\mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right) g\left(\mathbf{r}, \mathbf{r}^{\prime}\right) d V^{\prime},$

where $V$ denotes the volume of the domain, $\partial V$ its boundary and $\partial / \partial n^{\prime}$ the outgoing normal derivative on the boundary. Now consider the homogeneous Helmholtz equation $\nabla^{2} \psi(\mathbf{r})+k^{2} \psi(\mathbf{r})=0$ on the domain $z>0, x, y \in \mathbb{R}$ with boundary conditions $\psi(\mathbf{r})=0$ at $|\mathbf{r}| \rightarrow \infty$ and

$\left.\frac{\partial \psi}{\partial z}\right|_{z=0}= \begin{cases}0 & \text { for } \rho>a \\ A & \text { for } \rho \leqslant a\end{cases}$

where $\rho=\sqrt{x^{2}+y^{2}}$ and $A$ and $a$ are real constants. Construct a solution in integral form to this equation using cylindrical coordinates $(z, \rho, \varphi)$ with $x=\rho \cos \varphi, y=\rho \sin \varphi$.

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• # Paper 4, Section I, 5C

(a) The convolution $f * g$ of two functions $f, g: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ is related to their Fourier transforms $\tilde{f}, \tilde{g}$ by

$\frac{1}{2 \pi} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \tilde{f}(k) \tilde{g}(k) e^{i k x} d k=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(u) g(x-u) d u$

Derive Parseval's theorem for Fourier transforms from this relation.

(b) Let $a>0$ and

$f(x)= \begin{cases}\cos x & \text { for } x \in[-a, a] \\ 0 & \text { elsewhere }\end{cases}$

(i) Calculate the Fourier transform $\tilde{f}(k)$ of $f(x)$.

(ii) Determine how the behaviour of $\tilde{f}(k)$ in the limit $|k| \rightarrow \infty$ depends on the value of $a$. Briefly interpret the result.

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• # Paper 4, Section II, 17C

Describe the method of characteristics to construct solutions for 1st-order, homogeneous, linear partial differential equations

$\alpha(x, y) \frac{\partial u}{\partial x}+\beta(x, y) \frac{\partial u}{\partial y}=0$

with initial data prescribed on a curve $x_{0}(\sigma), y_{0}(\sigma): u\left(x_{0}(\sigma), y_{0}(\sigma)\right)=h(\sigma)$.

Consider the partial differential equation (here the two independent variables are time $t$ and spatial direction $x$ )

$\frac{\partial u}{\partial t}+u \frac{\partial u}{\partial x}=0$

with initial data $u(t=0, x)=e^{-x^{2}}$.

(i) Calculate the characteristic curves of this equation and show that $u$ remains constant along these curves. Qualitatively sketch the characteristics in the $(x, t)$ diagram, i.e. the $x$ axis is the horizontal and the $t$ axis is the vertical axis.

(ii) Let $\tilde{x}_{0}$ denote the $x$ value of a characteristic at time $t=0$ and thus label the characteristic curves. Let $\tilde{x}$ denote the $x$ value at time $t$ of a characteristic with given $\tilde{x}_{0}$. Show that $\partial \tilde{x} / \partial \tilde{x}_{0}$ becomes a non-monotonic function of $\tilde{x}_{0}$ (at fixed $t$ ) at times $t>\sqrt{e / 2}$, i.e. $\tilde{x}\left(\tilde{x}_{0}\right)$ has a local minimum or maximum. Qualitatively sketch snapshots of the solution $u(t, x)$ for a few fixed values of $t \in[0, \sqrt{e / 2}]$ and briefly interpret the onset of the non-monotonic behaviour of $\tilde{x}\left(\tilde{x}_{0}\right)$ at $t=\sqrt{e / 2}$.

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• # Paper 1, Section II, E

Give the definition of a metric on a set $X$ and explain how this defines a topology on $X$.

Suppose $(X, d)$ is a metric space and $U$ is an open set in $X$. Let $x, y \in X$ and $\epsilon>0$ such that the open ball ${B}_{ϵ}\left(y\right)\subseteq \mathrm{U<}$