• # Paper 2, Section II, I

Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field and $n \geqslant 1$. Exhibit $G L(n, k)$ as an open subset of affine space $\mathbb{A}_{k}^{n^{2}}$. Deduce that $G L(n, k)$ is smooth. Prove that it is also irreducible.

Prove that $G L(n, k)$ is isomorphic to a closed subvariety in an affine space.

Show that the matrix multiplication map

$G L(n, k) \times G L(n, k) \rightarrow G L(n, k)$

that sends a pair of matrices to their product is a morphism.

Prove that any morphism from $\mathbb{A}_{k}^{n}$ to $\mathbb{A}_{k}^{1}\setminus\{0\}$ is constant.

Prove that for $n \geqslant 2$ any morphism from $\mathbb{P}_{k}^{n}$ to $\mathbb{P}_{k}^{1}$ is constant.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, 21F

(a) State a suitable version of the Seifert-van Kampen theorem and use it to calculate the fundamental groups of the torus $T^{2}:=S^{1} \times S^{1}$ and of the real projective plane $\mathbb{R P}^{2}$.

(b) Show that there are no covering maps $T^{2} \rightarrow \mathbb{R} \mathbb{P}^{2}$ or $\mathbb{R P}^{2} \rightarrow T^{2}$.

(c) Consider the following covering space of $S^{1} \vee S^{1}$ :

Here the line segments labelled $a$ and $b$ are mapped to the two different copies of $S^{1}$ contained in $S^{1} \vee S^{1}$, with orientations as indicated.

Using the Galois correspondence with basepoints, identify a subgroup of

$\pi_{1}\left(S^{1} \vee S^{1}, x_{0}\right)=F_{2}$

(where $x_{0}$ is the wedge point) that corresponds to this covering space.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, H

Define the Schwartz space, $\mathscr{S}\left(\mathbb{R}^{n}\right)$, and the space of tempered distributions, $\mathscr{S}^{\prime}\left(\mathbb{R}^{n}\right)$, stating what it means for a sequence to converge in each space.

For a $C^{k}$ function $f: \mathbb{R}^{n} \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$, and non-negative integers $N, k$, we say $f \in X_{N, k}$ if

$\|f\|_{N, k}:=\sup _{x \in \mathbb{R}^{n} ;|\alpha| \leqslant k}\left|\left(1+|x|^{2}\right)^{\frac{N}{2}} D^{\alpha} f(x)\right|<\infty$

You may assume that $X_{N, k}$ equipped with $\|\cdot\|_{N, k}$ is a Banach space in which $\mathscr{S}\left(\mathbb{R}^{n}\right)$ is dense.

(a) Show that if $u \in \mathscr{S}^{\prime}\left(\mathbb{R}^{n}\right)$ there exist $N, k \in \mathbb{Z}_{\geqslant 0}$ and $C>0$ such that

$|u[\phi]| \leqslant C\|\phi\|_{N, k} \text { for all } \phi \in \mathscr{S}\left(\mathbb{R}^{n}\right)$

Deduce that there exists a unique $\tilde{u} \in X_{N, k}^{\prime}$ such that $\tilde{u}[\phi]=u[\phi]$ for all $\phi \in \mathscr{S}\left(\mathbb{R}^{n}\right)$.

(b) Recall that $v \in \mathscr{S}^{\prime}\left(\mathbb{R}^{n}\right)$ is positive if $v[\phi] \geqslant 0$ for all $\phi \in \mathscr{S}\left(\mathbb{R}^{n}\right)$ satisfying $\phi \geqslant 0$. Show that if $v \in \mathscr{S}^{\prime}\left(\mathbb{R}^{n}\right)$ is positive, then there exist $M \in \mathbb{Z}_{\geqslant 0}$ and $K>0$ such that

$|v[\phi]| \leqslant K\|\phi\|_{M, 0}, \quad \text { for all } \phi \in \mathscr{S}\left(\mathbb{R}^{n}\right)$

$\left[\right.$ Hint: Note that $\left.|\phi(x)| \leqslant\|\phi\|_{M, 0}\left(1+|x|^{2}\right)^{-\frac{M}{2}} \cdot\right]$

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• # Paper 2, Section II, 36B

(a) The $s$-wave solution $\psi_{0}$ for the scattering problem of a particle of mass $m$ and momentum $\hbar k$ has the asymptotic form

$\psi_{0}(r) \sim \frac{A}{r}[\sin (k r)+g(k) \cos (k r)]$

Define the phase shift $\delta_{0}$ and verify that $\tan \delta_{0}=g(k)$.

(b) Define the scattering amplitude $f$. For a spherically symmetric potential of finite range, starting from $\sigma_{T}=\int|f|^{2} d \Omega$, derive the expression

$\sigma_{T}=\frac{4 \pi}{k^{2}} \sum_{l=0}^{\infty}(2 l+1) \sin ^{2} \delta_{l}$

giving the cross-section $\sigma_{T}$ in terms of the phase shifts $\delta_{l}$ of the partial waves.

(c) For $g(k)=-k / K$ with $K>0$, show that a bound state exists and compute its energy. Neglecting the contributions from partial waves with $l>0$, show that

$\sigma_{T} \approx \frac{4 \pi}{K^{2}+k^{2}}$

(d) For $g(k)=\gamma /\left(K_{0}-k\right)$ with $K_{0}>0, \gamma>0$ compute the $s$-wave contribution to $\sigma_{T}$. Working to leading order in $\gamma \ll K_{0}$, show that $\sigma_{T}$ has a local maximum at $k=K_{0}$. Interpret this fact in terms of a resonance and compute its energy and decay width.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, $28 K$

Let $X$ be an irreducible, non-explosive, continuous-time Markov process on the state space $\mathbb{Z}$ with generator $Q=\left(q_{x, y}\right)_{x, y \in \mathbb{Z}}$.

(a) Define its jump chain $Y$ and prove that it is a discrete-time Markov chain.

(b) Define what it means for $X$ to be recurrent and prove that $X$ is recurrent if and only if its jump chain $Y$ is recurrent. Prove also that this is the case if the transition semigroup $\left(p_{x, y}(t)\right)$ satisfies

$\int_{0}^{\infty} p_{0,0}(t) d t=\infty$

(c) Show that $X$ is recurrent for at least one of the following generators:

$\begin{array}{cc} q_{x, y}=(1+|x|)^{-2} e^{-|x-y|^{2}} & (x \neq y), \\ q_{x, y}=(1+|x-y|)^{-2} e^{-|x|^{2}} & (x \neq y) . \end{array}$

[Hint: You may use that the semigroup associated with a $Q$-matrix on $\mathbb{Z}$ such that $q_{x, y}$ depends only on $x-y$ (and has sufficient decay) can be written as

$p_{x, y}(t)=\frac{1}{2 \pi} \int_{-\pi}^{\pi} e^{-t \lambda(k)} e^{i k(x-y)} d k$

where $\lambda(k)=\sum_{y} q_{0, y}\left(1-e^{i k y}\right)$. You may also find the bound $1-\cos x \leqslant x^{2} / 2$ useful. $]$

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• # Paper 2, Section II, 32A

(a) Let $x(t)$ and $\phi_{n}(t)$, for $n=0,1,2, \ldots$, be real-valued functions on $\mathbb{R}$.

(i) Define what it means for the sequence $\left\{\phi_{n}(t)\right\}_{n=0}^{\infty}$ to be an asymptotic sequence as $t \rightarrow \infty$.

(ii) Define what it means for $x(t)$ to have the asymptotic expansion

$x(t) \sim \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} a_{n} \phi_{n}(t) \quad \text { as } \quad t \rightarrow \infty$

(b) Use the method of stationary phase to calculate the leading-order asymptotic approximation as $x \rightarrow \infty$ of

$I(x)=\int_{0}^{1} \sin \left(x\left(2 t^{4}-t^{2}\right)\right) d t$

[You may assume that $\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} e^{i u^{2}} d u=\sqrt{\pi} e^{i \pi / 4}$.]

(c) Use Laplace's method to calculate the leading-order asymptotic approximation as $x \rightarrow \infty$ of

$J(x)=\int_{0}^{1} \sinh \left(x\left(2 t^{4}-t^{2}\right)\right) d t$

[In parts (b) and (c) you should include brief qualitative reasons for the origin of the leading-order contributions, but you do not need to give a formal justification.]

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• # Paper 2, Section I, F

Assuming the definition of a deterministic finite-state automaton (DFA) $D=$ $\left(Q, \Sigma, \delta, q_{0}, F\right)$, what is the extended transition function $\hat{\delta}$ for $D$ ? Also assuming the definition of a nondeterministic finite-state automaton (NFA) $N$, what is $\hat{\delta}$ in this case?

Define the languages accepted by $D$ and $N$, respectively, in terms of $\hat{\delta}$.

Given an NFA $N$ as above, describe the subset construction and show that the resulting DFA $\bar{N}$ accepts the same language as $N$. If $N$ has one accept state then how many does $\bar{N}$ have?

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• # Paper 2, Section I, D

Show that, in a uniform gravitational field, the net gravitational torque on a system of particles, about its centre of mass, is zero.

Let $S$ be an inertial frame of reference, and let $S^{\prime}$ be the frame of reference with the same origin and rotating with angular velocity $\boldsymbol{\omega}(t)$ with respect to $S$. You may assume that the rates of change of a vector $v$ observed in the two frames are related by

$\left(\frac{d \mathbf{v}}{d t}\right)_{S}=\left(\frac{d \mathbf{v}}{d t}\right)_{S^{\prime}}+\omega \times \mathbf{v} .$

Derive Euler's equations for the torque-free motion of a rigid body.

Show that the general torque-free motion of a symmetric top involves precession of the angular-velocity vector about the symmetry axis of the body. Determine how the direction and rate of precession depend on the moments of inertia of the body and its angular velocity.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, D

(a) Show that the Hamiltonian

$H=\frac{1}{2} p^{2}+\frac{1}{2} \omega^{2} q^{2},$

where $\omega$ is a positive constant, describes a simple harmonic oscillator with angular frequency $\omega$. Show that the energy $E$ and the action $I$ of the oscillator are related by $E=\omega I$.

(b) Let $0<\epsilon<2$ be a constant. Verify that the differential equation

$\ddot{x}+\frac{x}{(\epsilon t)^{2}}=0 \quad \text { subject to } \quad x(1)=0, \quad \dot{x}(1)=1$

is solved by

$x(t)=\frac{\sqrt{t}}{k} \sin (k \log t)$

when $t>1$, where $k$ is a constant you should determine in terms of $\epsilon$.

(c) Show that the solution in part (b) obeys

$\frac{1}{2} \dot{x}^{2}+\frac{1}{2} \frac{x^{2}}{(\epsilon t)^{2}}=\frac{1-\cos (2 k \log t)+2 k \sin (2 k \log t)+4 k^{2}}{8 k^{2} t}$

Hence show that the fractional variation of the action in the limit $\epsilon \ll 1$ is $O(\epsilon)$, but that these variations do not accumulate. Comment on this behaviour in relation to the theory of adiabatic invariance.

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• # Paper 2, Section I, K

State Shannon's noisy coding theorem for a binary symmetric channel, defining the terms involved.

Suppose a channel matrix, with output alphabet of size $n$, is such that the entries in each row are the elements of the set $\left\{p_{1}, \ldots, p_{n}\right\}$ in some order. Further suppose that all columns are permutations of one another. Show that the channel's information capacity $C$ is given by

$C=\log n+\sum_{i=1}^{n} p_{i} \log p_{i}$

Show that the information capacity of the channel matrix

$\left(\begin{array}{cccc} \frac{1}{3} & \frac{1}{3} & \frac{1}{6} & \frac{1}{6} \\ \frac{1}{6} & \frac{1}{6} & \frac{1}{3} & \frac{1}{3} \end{array}\right)$

is given by $C=\frac{5}{3}-\log 3$.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, $12 K$

(a) Define what it means to say that $C$ is a binary cyclic code. Explain the bijection between the set of binary cyclic codes of length $n$ and the factors of $X^{n}-1$ in $\mathbb{F}_{2}[X]$.

(b) What is a linear feedback shift register?

Suppose that $M: \mathbb{F}_{2}^{d} \rightarrow \mathbb{F}_{2}^{d}$ is a linear feedback shift register. Further suppose $\mathbf{0} \neq \mathbf{x} \in \mathbb{F}_{2}^{d}$ and $k$ is a positive integer such that $M^{k} \mathbf{x}=\mathbf{x}$. Let $H$ be the $d \times k$ matrix $\left(\mathbf{x}, M \mathbf{x}, \ldots, M^{k-1} \mathbf{x}\right)$. Considering $H$ as a parity check matrix of a code $C$, show that $C$ is a binary cyclic code.

(c) Suppose that $C$ is a binary cyclic code. Prove that, if $C$ does not contain the codeword $11 . . .1$, then all codewords in $C$ have even weight.

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• # Paper 2, Section I, 9B

(a) The generalised Boltzmann distribution $P(\mathbf{p})$ is given by

$P(\mathbf{p})=\frac{e^{-\beta\left(E_{\mathbf{p}} n_{\mathbf{p}}-\mu n_{\mathbf{p}}\right)}}{\mathcal{Z}_{\mathbf{p}}}$

where $\beta=\left(k_{B} T\right)^{-1}, \mu$ is the chemical potential,

$\mathcal{Z}_{\mathbf{p}}=\sum_{n_{\mathbf{p}}} e^{-\beta\left(E_{\mathbf{p}} n_{\mathbf{p}}-\mu n_{\mathbf{p}}\right)}, \quad E_{\mathbf{p}}=\sqrt{m^{2} c^{4}+p^{2} c^{2}} \quad \text { and } \quad p=|\mathbf{p}|$

Find the average particle number $\langle N(\mathbf{p})\rangle$ with momentum $\mathbf{p}$, assuming that all particles have rest mass $m$ and are either

(i) bosons, or

(ii) fermions .

(b) The photon total number density $n_{\gamma}$ is given by

$n_{\gamma}=\frac{2 \zeta(3)}{\pi^{2} \hbar^{3} c^{3}}\left(k_{B} T\right)^{3}$

where $\zeta(3) \approx 1.2$. Consider now the fractional ionisation of hydrogen

$X_{e}=\frac{n_{e}}{n_{e}+n_{H}}$

In our universe $n_{e}+n_{H}=n_{p}+n_{H} \approx \eta n_{\gamma}$, where $\eta \sim 10^{-9}$ is the baryon-to-photon number density. Find an expression for the ratio

$\frac{1-X_{e}}{X_{e}^{2}}$

in terms of $\eta,\left(k_{B} T\right)$, the electron mass $m_{e}$, the speed of light $c$ and the ionisation energy of hydrogen $I \approx 13.6 \mathrm{eV}$.

One might expect neutral hydrogen to form at a temperature $k_{B} T \sim I$, but instead in our universe it happens at the much lower temperature $k_{B} T \approx 0.3 \mathrm{eV}$. Briefly explain why this happens.

[You may use without proof the Saha equation

$\frac{n_{H}}{n_{e}^{2}}=\left(\frac{2 \pi \hbar^{2}}{m_{e} k_{B} T}\right)^{3 / 2} e^{\beta I}$

for chemical equilibrium in the reaction $\left.e^{-}+p^{+} \leftrightarrow H+\gamma .\right]$

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• # Paper 2, Section II, $26 \mathbf{F}$

Let $U$ be a domain in $\mathbb{R}^{2}$, and let $\phi: U \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{3}$ be a smooth map. Define what it means for $\phi$ to be an immersion. What does it mean for an immersion to be isothermal?

Write down a formula for the mean curvature of an immersion in terms of the first and second fundamental forms. What does it mean for an immersed surface to be minimal? Assume that $\phi(u, v)=(x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v))$ is an isothermal immersion. Prove that it is minimal if and only if $x, y, z$ are harmonic functions of $u, v$.

For $u \in \mathbb{R}, v \in[0,2 \pi]$, and smooth functions $f, g: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, assume that

$\phi(u, v)=(f(u) \cos v, f(u) \sin v, g(u))$

is an isothermal immersion. Find all possible pairs $(f, g)$ such that this immersion is minimal.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, A

Consider a modified van der Pol system defined by

\begin{aligned} &\dot{x}=y-\mu\left(\frac{1}{3} x^{3}-x\right) \\ &\dot{y}=-x+F \end{aligned}

where $\mu>0$ and $F$ are constants.

(a) A parallelogram PQRS of width $2 L$ is defined by

$\begin{array}{ll} P=(L, \mu f(L)), & Q=(L, 2 L-\mu f(L)) \\ R=(-L,-\mu f(L)), & S=(-L, \mu f(L)-2 L) \end{array}$

where $f(L)=\frac{1}{3} L^{3}-L$. Show that if $L$ is sufficiently large then trajectories never leave the region inside the parallelogram.

Hence show that if $F^{2}<1$ there must be a periodic orbit. Explain your reasoning carefully.

(b) Use the energy-balance method to analyse the behaviour of the system for $\mu \ll 1$, identifying the difference in behaviours between $F^{2}<1$ and $F^{2}>1$.

(c) Describe the behaviour of the system for $\mu \gg 1$, using sketches of the phase plane to illustrate your arguments for the cases $0 and $F>1$.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, 39A

(a) Incompressible fluid of viscosity $\mu$ fills the thin, slowly varying gap between rigid boundaries at $z=0$ and $z=h(x, y)>0$. The boundary at $z=0$ translates in its own plane with a constant velocity $\mathbf{U}=(U, 0,0)$, while the other boundary is stationary. If $h$ has typical magnitude $H$ and varies on a lengthscale $L$, state conditions for the lubrication approximation to be appropriate.

Write down the lubrication equations for this problem and show that the horizontal volume flux $\mathbf{q}=\left(q_{x}, q_{y}, 0\right)$ is given by

$\mathbf{q}=\frac{\mathbf{U} h}{2}-\frac{h^{3}}{12 \mu} \nabla p$

where $p(x, y)$ is the pressure.

Explain why $\mathbf{q}=\nabla \wedge(0,0, \psi)$ for some function $\psi(x, y)$. Deduce that $\psi$ satisfies the equation

$\nabla \cdot\left(\frac{1}{h^{3}} \nabla \psi\right)=-\frac{U}{h^{3}} \frac{\partial h}{\partial y}$

(b) Now consider the case $\mathbf{U}=\mathbf{0}, h=h_{0}$ for $r>a$ and $h=h_{1}$ for $r, where $h_{0}, h_{1}$ and $a$ are constants, and $(r, \theta)$ are polar coordinates. A uniform pressure gradient $\nabla p=-G \mathbf{e}_{x}$ is applied at infinity. Show that $\psi \sim A r \sin \theta$ as $r \rightarrow \infty$, where the constant $A$ is to be determined.

Given that $a \gg h_{0}, h_{1}$, you may assume that the equations of part (a) apply for $r and $r>a$, and are subject to conditions that the radial component $q_{r}$ of the volume flux and the pressure $p$ are both continuous across $r=a$. Show that these continuity conditions imply that

$\left[\frac{\partial \psi}{\partial \theta}\right]_{-}^{+}=0 \quad \text { and }\left[\frac{1}{h^{3}} \frac{\partial \psi}{\partial r}\right]_{-}^{+}=0$

respectively, where []$_{-}^{+}$denotes the jump across $r=a$.

Hence determine $\psi(r, \theta)$ and deduce that the total flux through $r=a$ is given by

$\frac{4 A a h_{1}^{3}}{h_{0}^{3}+h_{1}^{3}}$

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• # Paper 2, Section I, 7E

The function $w(z)$ satisfies the differential equation

$\tag{†} \frac{d^{2} w}{d z^{2}}+p(z) \frac{d w}{d z}+q(z) w=0$

where $p(z)$ and $q(z)$ are complex analytic functions except, possibly, for isolated singularities in $\overline{\mathbb{C}}=\mathbb{C} \cup\{\infty\}$ (the extended complex plane).

(a) Given equation $(†)$, state the conditions for a point $z_{0} \in \mathbb{C}$ to be

(i) an ordinary point,

(ii) a regular singular point,

(iii) an irregular singular point.

(b) Now consider $z_{0}=\infty$ and use a suitable change of variables $z \rightarrow t$, with $y(t)=w(z)$, to rewrite $(†)$ as a differential equation that is satisfied by $y(t)$. Hence, deduce the conditions for $z_{0}=\infty$ to be

(i) an ordinary point,

(ii) a regular singular point,

(iii) an irregular singular point.

[In each case, you should express your answer in terms of the functions $p$ and $q$.]

(c) Use the results above to prove that any equation of the form ( $\dagger$ ) must have at least one singular point in $\overline{\mathbb{C}}$.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, 13E

The temperature $T(x, t)$ in a semi-infinite bar $(0 \leqslant x<\infty)$ satisfies the heat equation

$\frac{\partial T}{\partial t}=\kappa \frac{\partial^{2} T}{\partial x^{2}}, \quad \text { for } x>0 \text { and } t>0$

where $\kappa$ is a positive constant.

For $t<0$, the bar is at zero temperature. For $t \geqslant 0$, the temperature is subject to the boundary conditions

$T(0, t)=a\left(1-e^{-b t}\right),$

where $a$ and $b$ are positive constants, and $T(x, t) \rightarrow 0$ as $x \rightarrow \infty$.

(a) Show that the Laplace transform of $T(x, t)$ with respect to $t$ takes the form

$\hat{T}(x, p)=\hat{f}(p) e^{-x \sqrt{p / \kappa}}$

and find $\hat{f}(p)$. Hence write $\hat{T}(x, p)$ in terms of $a, b, \kappa, p$ and $x$.

(b) By performing the inverse Laplace transform using contour integration, show that for $t \geqslant 0$

$T(x, t)=a\left[1-e^{-b t} \cos \left(\sqrt{\frac{b}{\kappa}} x\right)\right]+\frac{2 a b}{\pi} \mathcal{P} \int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{e^{-v^{2} t} \sin (x v / \sqrt{\kappa})}{v\left(v^{2}-b\right)} d v$

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• # Paper 2, Section II, 18I

(a) Let $f(x) \in \mathbb{F}_{q}[x]$ be a polynomial of degree $n$, and let $L$ be its splitting field.

(i) Suppose that $f$ is irreducible. Compute $\operatorname{Gal}(f)$, carefully stating any theorems you use.

(ii) Now suppose that $f(x)$ factors as $f=h_{1} \cdots h_{r}$ in $\mathbb{F}_{q}[x]$, with each $h_{i}$ irreducible, and $h_{i} \neq h_{j}$ if $i \neq j$. Compute $\operatorname{Gal}(f)$, carefully stating any theorems you use.

(iii) Explain why $L / \mathbb{F}_{q}$ is a cyclotomic extension. Define the corresponding homomorphism $\operatorname{Gal}\left(L / \mathbb{F}_{q}\right) \hookrightarrow(\mathbb{Z} / m \mathbb{Z})^{*}$ for this extension (for a suitable integer $m$ ), and compute its image.

(b) Compute $\operatorname{Gal}(f)$ for the polynomial $f=x^{4}+8 x+12 \in \mathbb{Q}[x]$. [You may assume that $f$ is irreducible and that its discriminant is $576^{2}$.]

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• # Paper 2, Section II, 38C

Consider the following metric for a 3-dimensional, static and rotationally symmetric Lorentzian manifold:

$d s^{2}=r^{-2}\left(-d t^{2}+d r^{2}\right)+r^{2} d \theta^{2}$

(a) Write down a Lagrangian $\mathcal{L}$ for arbitrary geodesics in this metric, if the geodesic is affinely parameterized with respect to $\lambda$. What condition may be imposed to distinguish spacelike, timelike, and null geodesics?

(b) Find the three constants of motion for any geodesic.

(c) Two observation stations are sitting at radii $r=R$ and $r=2 R$ respectively, and at the same angular coordinate. Each is accelerating so as to remain stationary with respect to time translations. At $t=0$ a photon is emitted from the naked singularity at $r=0$.

(i) At what time $t_{1}$ does the photon reach the inner station?

(ii) Express the frequency $\nu_{2}$ of the photon at the outer station in terms of the frequency $\nu_{1}$ at the inner station. Explain whether the photon is redshifted or blueshifted as it travels.

(d) Consider a complete (i.e. infinite in both directions) spacelike geodesic on a constant- $t$ slice with impact parameter $b=r_{\min }>0$. What is the angle $\Delta \theta$ between the two asymptotes of the geodesic at $r=\infty$ ? [You need not be concerned with the sign of $\Delta \theta$ or the periodicity of the $\theta$ coordinate.]

[Hint: You may find integration by substitution useful.]

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• # Paper 2, Section II, 17 G

(a) Define a tree and what it means for a graph to be acyclic. Show that if $G$ is an acyclic graph on $n$ vertices then $e(G) \leqslant n-1$. [You may use the fact that a spanning tree on $n$ vertices has $n-1$ edges.]

(b) Show that any 3-regular graph on $n$ vertices contains a cycle of length $\leqslant$ $100 \log n$. Hence show that there exists $n_{0}$ such that every 3-regular graph on more than $n_{0}$ vertices must contain two cycles $C_{1}, C_{2}$ with disjoint vertex sets.

(c) An unfriendly partition of a graph $G=(V, E)$ is a partition $V=A \cup B$, where $A, B \neq \emptyset$, such that every vertex $v \in A$ has $|N(v) \cap B| \geqslant|N(v) \cap A|$ and every $v \in B$ has $|N(v) \cap A| \geqslant|N(v) \cap B|$. Show that every graph $G$ with $|G| \geqslant 2$ has an unfriendly partition.

(d) A friendly partition of a graph $G=(V, E)$ is a partition $V=S \cup T$, where $S, T \neq \emptyset$, such that every vertex $v \in S$ has $|N(v) \cap S| \geqslant|N(v) \cap T|$ and every $v \in T$ has $|N(v) \cap T| \geqslant|N(v) \cap S|$. Give an example of a 3-regular graph (on at least 1 vertex) that does not have a friendly partition. Using part (b), show that for large enough $n_{0}$ every 3-regular graph $G$ with $|G| \geqslant n_{0}$ has a friendly partition.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, 34D

(a) Explain briefly how the linear operators $L=-\partial_{x}^{2}+u(x, t)$ and $A=4 \partial_{x}^{3}-3 u \partial_{x}-$ $3 \partial_{x} u$ can be used to give a Lax-pair formulation of the $\mathrm{KdV}$ equation $u_{t}+u_{x x x}-6 u u_{x}=0$.

(b) Give a brief definition of the scattering data

$\mathcal{S}_{u(t)}=\left\{\{R(k, t)\}_{k \in \mathbb{R}},\left\{-\kappa_{n}(t)^{2}, c_{n}(t)\right\}_{n=1}^{N}\right\}$

attached to a smooth solution $u=u(x, t)$ of the KdV equation at time $t$. [You may assume $u(x, t)$ to be rapidly decreasing in $x$.] State the time dependence of $\kappa_{n}(t)$ and $c_{n}(t)$, and derive the time dependence of $R(k, t)$ from the Lax-pair formulation.

(c) Show that

$F(x, t)=\sum_{n=1}^{N} c_{n}(t)^{2} e^{-\kappa_{n}(t) x}+\frac{1}{2 \pi} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} R(k, t) e^{i k x} d k$

satisfies $\partial_{t} F+8 \partial_{x}^{3} F=0$. Now let $K(x, y, t)$ be the solution of the equation

$K(x, y, t)+F(x+y, t)+\int_{x}^{\infty} K(x, z, t) F(z+y, t) d z=0$

and let $u(x, t)=-2 \partial_{x} \phi(x, t)$, where $\phi(x, t)=K(x, x, t)$. Defining $G(x, y, t)$ by $G=$ $\left(\partial_{x}^{2}-\partial_{y}^{2}-u(x, t)\right) K(x, y, t)$, show that

$G(x, y, t)+\int_{x}^{\infty} G(x, z, t) F(z+y, t) d z=0$

(d) Given that $K(x, y, t)$ obeys the equations

\begin{aligned} \left(\partial_{x}^{2}-\partial_{y}^{2}\right) K-u K &=0 \\ \left(\partial_{t}+4 \partial_{x}^{3}+4 \partial_{y}^{3}\right) K-3\left(\partial_{x} u\right) K-6 u \partial_{x} K &=0 \end{aligned}

where $u=u(x, t)$, deduce that

$\partial_{t} K+\left(\partial_{x}+\partial_{y}\right)^{3} K-3 u\left(\partial_{x}+\partial_{y}\right) K=0$

and hence that $u$ solves the $\mathrm{KdV}$ equation.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, 22H

(a) Let $V$ be a real normed vector space. Show that any proper subspace of $V$ has empty interior.

Assuming $V$ to be infinite-dimensional and complete, prove that any algebraic basis of $V$ is uncountable. [The Baire category theorem can be used if stated properly.] Deduce that the vector space of polynomials with real coefficients cannot be equipped with a complete norm, i.e. a norm that makes it complete.

(b) Suppose that $\|\cdot\|_{1}$ and $\|\cdot\|_{2}$ are norms on a vector space $V$ such that $\left(V,\|\cdot\|_{1}\right)$ and $\left(V,\|\cdot\|_{2}\right)$ are both complete. Prove that if there exists $C_{1}>0$ such that $\|x\|_{2} \leqslant C_{1}\|x\|_{1}$ for all $x \in V$, then there exists $C_{2}>0$ such that $\|x\|_{1} \leqslant C_{2}\|x\|_{2}$ for all $x \in V$. Is this still true without the assumption that $\left(V,\|\cdot\|_{1}\right)$ and $\left(V,\|\cdot\|_{2}\right)$ are both complete? Justify your answer.

(c) Let $V$ be a real normed vector space (not necessarily complete) and $V^{*}$ be the set of linear continuous forms $f: V \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$. Let $\left(x_{n}\right)_{n \geqslant 1}$ be a sequence in $V$ such that $\sum_{n \geqslant 1}\left|f\left(x_{n}\right)\right|<\infty$ for all $f \in V^{*}$. Prove that

$\sup _{\|f\|_{V^{*} \leqslant 1}} \sum_{n \geqslant 1}\left|f\left(x_{n}\right)\right|<\infty .$

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• # Paper 2, Section II, G

Write down the inductive definition of ordinal exponentiation. Show that $\omega^{\alpha} \geqslant \alpha$ for every ordinal $\alpha$. Deduce that, for every ordinal $\alpha$, there is a least ordinal $\alpha^{*}$ with $\omega^{\alpha^{*}}>\alpha$. Show that, if $\alpha \neq 0$, then $\alpha^{*}$ must be a successor ordinal.

Now let $\alpha$ be a non-zero ordinal. Show that there exist ordinals $\beta$ and $\gamma$, where $\gamma<\alpha$, and a positive integer $n$ such that $\alpha=\omega^{\beta} n+\gamma$. Hence, or otherwise, show that $\alpha$ can be written in the form

$\alpha=\omega^{\beta_{1}} n_{1}+\omega^{\beta_{2}} n_{2}+\cdots+\omega^{\beta_{k}} n_{k}$

where $k, n_{1}, n_{2}, \ldots, n_{k}$ are positive integers and $\beta_{1}>\beta_{2}>\cdots>\beta_{k}$ are ordinals. [We call this the Cantor normal form of $\alpha$, and you may henceforth assume that it is unique.]

Given ordinals $\delta_{1}, \delta_{2}$ and positive integers $m_{1}, m_{2}$ find the Cantor normal form of $\omega^{\delta_{1}} m_{1}+\omega^{\delta_{2}} m_{2}$. Hence, or otherwise, given non-zero ordinals $\alpha$ and $\alpha^{\prime}$, find the Cantor normal form of $\alpha+\alpha^{\prime}$ in terms of the Cantor normal forms

$\alpha=\omega^{\beta_{1}} n_{1}+\omega^{\beta_{2}} n_{2}+\cdots+\omega^{\beta_{k}} n_{k}$

and

$\alpha^{\prime}=\omega^{\beta_{1}^{\prime}} n_{1}^{\prime}+\omega^{\beta_{2}^{\prime}} n_{2}^{\prime}+\cdots+\omega^{\beta_{k^{\prime}}^{\prime}} n_{k^{\prime}}^{\prime}$

of $\alpha$ and $\alpha^{\prime}$.

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• # Paper 2, Section I, E

Consider a stochastic birth-death process in a population of size $n(t)$, where deaths occur in pairs for $n \geqslant 2$. The probability per unit time of a birth, $n \rightarrow n+1$ for $n \geqslant 0$, is $b$, that of a pair of deaths, $n \rightarrow n-2$ for $n \geqslant 2$, is $d n$, and that of the death of a lonely singleton, $1 \rightarrow 0$, is $D$.

(a) Write down the master equation for $p_{n}(t)$, the probability of a population of size $n$ at time $t$, distinguishing between the cases $n \geqslant 2, n=0$ and $n=1$.

(b) For a function $f(n), n \geqslant 0$, show carefully that

$\frac{d}{d t}\langle f(n)\rangle=b \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\left(f_{n+1}-f_{n}\right) p_{n}-d \sum_{n=2}^{\infty}\left(f_{n}-f_{n-2}\right) n p_{n}-D\left(f_{1}-f_{0}\right) p_{1}$

where $f_{n}=f(n)$.

(c) Deduce the evolution equation for the mean $\mu(t)=\langle n\rangle$, and simplify it for the case $D=2 d$.

(d) For the same value of $D$, show that

$\frac{d}{d t}\left\langle n^{2}\right\rangle=b(2 \mu+1)-4 d\left(\left\langle n^{2}\right\rangle-\mu\right)-2 d p_{1}$

Deduce that the variance $\sigma^{2}$ in the stationary state for $b, d>0$ satisfies

$\frac{3 b}{4 d}-\frac{1}{2}<\sigma^{2}<\frac{3 b}{4 d}$

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• # Paper 2, Section II, J

(a) What is meant by the subdifferential $\partial f(x)$ of a convex function $f: \mathbb{R}^{d} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ at $x \in \mathbb{R}^{d}$ ? Write down the subdifferential $\partial f(x)$ of the function $f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ given by $f(x)=\gamma|x|$, where $\gamma>0$.

Show that $x$ minimises $f$ if and only if $0 \in \partial f(x)$.

What does it mean for a function $f: \mathbb{R}^{d} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ to be strictly convex? Show that any minimiser of a strictly convex function must be unique.

(b) Suppose we have input-output pairs $\left(x_{1}, y_{1}\right), \ldots,\left(x_{n}, y_{n}\right) \in\{-1,1\}^{p} \times\{-1,1\}$ with $p \geqslant 2$. Consider the objective function

$f(\beta)=\frac{1}{n} \sum_{i=1}^{n} \exp \left(-y_{i} x_{i}^{T} \beta\right)+\gamma\|\beta\|_{1}$

where $\beta=\left(\beta_{1}, \ldots, \beta_{p}\right)^{T}$ and $\gamma>0$. Assume that $\left(y_{i}\right)_{i=1}^{n} \neq\left(x_{i 1}\right)_{i=1}^{n}$. Fix $\beta_{2}, \ldots, \beta_{p}$ and define

$\kappa_{1}=\sum_{\substack{1 \leqslant i \leqslant n: \\ x_{i 1} \neq y_{i}}} \exp \left(-y_{i} \eta_{i}\right) \quad \text { and } \quad \kappa_{2}=\sum_{i=1}^{n} \exp \left(-y_{i} \eta_{i}\right)$

where $\eta_{i}=\sum_{j=2}^{p} x_{i j} \beta_{j}$ for $i=1, \ldots, n$. Show that if $\left|2 \kappa_{1}-\kappa_{2}\right| \leqslant \gamma$, then

$\operatorname{argmin}_{\beta_{1} \in \mathbb{R}} f\left(\beta_{1}, \beta_{2}, \ldots, \beta_{p}\right)=0 .$

[You may use any results from the course without proof, other than those whose proof is asked for directly.]

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• # Paper 2, Section II, 20G

Let $K$ be a field containing $\mathbb{Q}$. What does it mean to say that an element of $K$ is algebraic? Show that if $\alpha \in K$ is algebraic and non-zero, then there exists $\beta \in \mathbb{Z}[\alpha]$ such that $\alpha \beta$ is a non-zero (rational) integer.

Now let $K$ be a number field, with ring of integers $\mathcal{O}_{K}$. Let $R$ be a subring of $\mathcal{O}_{K}$ whose field of fractions equals $K$. Show that every element of $K$ can be written as $r / m$, where $r \in R$ and $m$ is a positive integer.

Prove that $R$ is a free abelian group of $\operatorname{rank}[K: \mathbb{Q}]$, and that $R$ has finite index in $\mathcal{O}_{K}$. Show also that for every nonzero ideal $I$ of $R$, the index $(R: I)$ of $I$ in $R$ is finite, and that for some positive integer $m, m \mathcal{O}_{K}$ is an ideal of $R$.

Suppose that for every pair of non-zero ideals $I, J \subset R$, we have

$(R: I J)=(R: I)(R: J) .$

Show that $R=\mathcal{O}_{K}$.

[You may assume without proof that $\mathcal{O}_{K}$ is a free abelian group of rank $[K: \mathbb{Q}]$ ] ]

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• # Paper 2, Section $I$, I

Define the Möbius function $\mu$, and explain what it means for it to be multiplicative.

Show that for every positive integer $n$

$\sum_{d \mid n} \frac{\mu(d)^{2}}{\phi(d)}=\frac{n}{\phi(n)}$

where $\phi$ is the Euler totient function.

Fix an integer $k \geqslant 1$. Use the Chinese remainder theorem to show that there are infinitely many positive integers $n$ for which

$\mu(n)=\mu(n+1)=\cdots=\mu(n+k)$

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• # Paper 2, Section II, 41E

(a) Let $\mathbf{x} \in \mathbb{R}^{N}$ and define $\mathbf{y} \in \mathbb{R}^{2 N}$ by

$y_{n}= \begin{cases}x_{n}, & 0 \leqslant n \leqslant N-1 \\ x_{2 N-n-1}, & N \leqslant n \leqslant 2 N-1\end{cases}$

Let $\mathbf{Y} \in \mathbb{C}^{2 N}$ be defined as the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of $\mathbf{y}$, i.e.

$Y_{k}=\sum_{n=0}^{2 N-1} y_{n} \omega_{2 N}^{n k}, \quad \omega_{2 N}=\exp (-\pi i / N), \quad 0 \leqslant k \leqslant 2 N-1$

Show that

$Y_{k}=2 \omega_{2 N}^{-k / 2} \sum_{n=0}^{N-1} x_{n} \cos \left[\frac{\pi}{N}\left(n+\frac{1}{2}\right) k\right], \quad 0 \leqslant k \leqslant 2 N-1$

(b) Define the discrete cosine transform $(\mathrm{DCT}) \mathcal{C}_{N}: \mathbb{R}^{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{N}$ by

$\mathbf{z}=\mathcal{C}_{N} \mathbf{x}, \text { where } z_{k}=\sum_{n=0}^{N-1} x_{n} \cos \left[\frac{\pi}{N}\left(n+\frac{1}{2}\right) k\right], \quad k=0, \ldots, N-1$

For $N=2^{p}$ with $p \in \mathbb{N}$, show that, similar to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), there exists an algorithm that computes the DCT of a vector of length $N$, where the number of multiplications required is bounded by $C N \log N$, where $C$ is some constant independent of $N$.

[You may not assume that the FFT algorithm requires $\mathcal{O}(N \log N)$ multiplications to compute the DFT of a vector of length $N$. If you use this, you must prove it.]

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• # Paper 2, Section II, B

(a) Let $\{|n\rangle\}$ be a basis of eigenstates of a non-degenerate Hamiltonian $H$, with corresponding eigenvalues $\left\{E_{n}\right\}$. Write down an expression for the energy levels of the perturbed Hamiltonian $H+\lambda \Delta H$, correct to second order in the dimensionless constant $\lambda \ll 1$.

(b) A particle travels in one dimension under the influence of the potential

$V(X)=\frac{1}{2} m \omega^{2} X^{2}+\lambda \hbar \omega \frac{X^{3}}{L^{3}}$

where $m$ is the mass, $\omega$ a frequency and $L=\sqrt{\hbar / 2 m \omega}$ a length scale. Show that, to first order in $\lambda$, all energy levels coincide with those of the harmonic oscillator. Calculate the energy of the ground state to second order in $\lambda$.

Does perturbation theory in $\lambda$ converge for this potential? Briefly explain your answer.

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• # Paper 2, Section II, J

Let $X_{1}, \ldots, X_{n}$ be i.i.d. random observations taking values in $[0,1]$ with a continuous distribution function $F$. Let $\hat{F}_{n}(x)=n^{-1} \sum_{i=1}^{n} \mathbf{1}_{\left\{X_{i} \leqslant x\right\}}$ for each $x \in[0,1]$.

(a) State the Kolmogorov-Smirnov theorem. Explain how this theorem may be used in a goodness-of-fit test for the null hypothesis $H_{0}: F=F_{0}$, with $F_{0}$ continuous.

(b) Suppose you do not have access to the quantiles of the sampling distribution of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic. However, you are given i.i.d. samples $Z_{1}, \ldots, Z_{n m}$ with distribution function $F_{0}$. Describe a test of $H_{0}: F=F_{0}$ with size exactly $1 /(m+1)$.

(c) Now suppose that $X_{1}, \ldots, X_{n}$ are i.i.d. taking values in $[0, \infty)$ with probability density function $f$, with $\sup _{x \geqslant 0}\left(|f(x)|+\left|f^{\prime}(x)\right|\right)<1$. Define the density estimator

$\left.\hat{f}_{n}(x)=n^{-2 / 3} \sum_{i=1}^{n} \mathbf{1}_{\left\{X_{i}\right.}-\frac{1}{2 n^{1 / 3}} \leqslant x \leqslant X_{i}+\frac{1}{2 n^{1 / 3}}\right\}, \quad x \geqslant 0 .$

Show that for all $x \geqslant 0$ and all $n \geqslant 1$,

$\mathbb{E}\left[\left(\hat{f}_{n}(x)-f(x)\right)^{2}\right] \leqslant \frac{2}{n^{2 / 3}} .$

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• # Paper 2, Section II, H

Let $(E, \mathcal{E}, \mu)$ be a measure space. A function $f$ is simple if it is of the form $f=\sum_{i=1}^{N} a_{i} 1_{A_{i}}$, where $a_{i} \in \mathbb{R}, N \in \mathbb{N}$ and $A_{i} \in \mathcal{E}$.

Now let $f:(E, \mathcal{E}, \mu) \rightarrow[0, \infty]$ be a Borel-measurable map. Show that there exists a sequence $f_{n}$ of simple functions such that $f_{n}(x) \rightarrow f(x)$ for all $x \in E$ as $n \rightarrow \infty$.

Next suppose $f$ is also $\mu$-integrable. Construct a sequence $f_{n}$ of simple $\mu$-integrable functions such that $\int_{E}\left|f_{n}-f\right| d \mu \rightarrow 0$ as $n \rightarrow \infty$.

Finally, suppose $f$ is also bounded. Show that there exists a sequence $f_{n}$ of simple functions such that $f_{n} \rightarrow f$ uniformly on $E$ as $n \rightarrow \infty$.

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• # Paper 2, Section I, 10D

Let $\mathcal{B}_{n}$ denote the set of all $n$-bit strings and let $f: \mathcal{B}_{n} \rightarrow \mathcal{B}_{1}$ be a Boolean function which obeys either

(I) $f(x)=0$ for all $x \in \mathcal{B}_{n}$, or

(II) $f(x)=0$ for exactly half of all $x \in \mathcal{B}_{n}$.

Suppose we are given the $n$-qubit state

$|\xi\rangle=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2^{n}}} \sum_{x \in \mathcal{B}_{n}}(-1)^{f(x)}|x\rangle$

Show how we may determine with certainty whether $f$ is of case (I) or case (II).

Suppose now that Alice and Bob are separated in space. Alice possesses a quantum oracle for a Boolean function $f_{A}: \mathcal{B}_{n} \rightarrow \mathcal{B}_{1}$ and Bob similarly possess a quantum oracle for a Boolean function $f_{B}: \mathcal{B}_{n} \rightarrow \mathcal{B}_{1}$