4.II.17D

State how the 4 -momentum $p_{\mu}$ of a particle is related to its energy and 3momentum. How is $p_{\mu}$ related to the particle mass? For two particles with 4 -momenta $p_{1 \mu}$ and $p_{2 \mu}$ find a Lorentz-invariant expression that gives the total energy in their centre of mass frame.

A photon strikes an electron at rest. What is the minimum energy it must have in order for it to create an electron and positron, of the same mass $m_{e}$ as the electron, in addition to the original electron? Express the result in units of $m_{e} c^{2}$.

[It may be helpful to consider the minimum necessary energy in the centre of mass frame.]

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