Paper 3, Section II, F

Describe the hyperbolic metric on the upper half-plane $H$. Show that any Möbius transformation that preserves $H$ is an isometry of this metric.

Suppose that $z_{1}, z_{2} \in H$ are distinct and that the hyperbolic line through $z_{1}$ and $z_{2}$ meets the real axis at $w_{1}, w_{2}$. Show that the hyperbolic distance $\rho\left(z_{1}, z_{2}\right)$ between $z_{1}$ and $z_{2}$ is given by $\rho\left(z_{1}, z_{2}\right)=\log r$, where $r$ is the cross-ratio of the four points $z_{1}, z_{2}, w_{1}, w_{2}$, taken in an appropriate order.

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