3.II.14F

State and prove the Gauss-Bonnet formula for the area of a spherical triangle. Deduce a formula for the area of a spherical $n$-gon with angles $\alpha_{1}, \alpha_{2}, \ldots, \alpha_{n}$. For what range of values of $\alpha$ does there exist a (convex) regular spherical $n$-gon with angle $\alpha$ ?

Let $\Delta$ be a spherical triangle with angles $\pi / p, \pi / q$ and $\pi / r$ where $p, q, r$ are integers, and let $G$ be the group of isometries of the sphere generated by reflections in the three sides of $\Delta$. List the possible values of $(p, q, r)$, and in each case calculate the order of the corresponding group $G$. If $(p, q, r)=(2,3,5)$, show how to construct a regular dodecahedron whose group of symmetries is $G$.

[You may assume that the images of $\Delta$ under the elements of $G$ form a tessellation of the sphere.]

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