Paper 1, Section II, A

(i) Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the following matrices and show that both are diagonalisable:

$A=\left(\begin{array}{rrr} 1 & 1 & -1 \\ -1 & 3 & -1 \\ -1 & 1 & 1 \end{array}\right), \quad B=\left(\begin{array}{rcr} 1 & 4 & -3 \\ -4 & 10 & -4 \\ -3 & 4 & 1 \end{array}\right)$

(ii) Show that, if two real $n \times n$ matrices can both be diagonalised using the same basis transformation, then they commute.

(iii) Suppose now that two real $n \times n$ matrices $C$ and $D$ commute and that $D$ has $n$ distinct eigenvalues. Show that for any eigenvector $\mathbf{x}$ of $D$ the vector $C \mathbf{x}$ is a scalar multiple of $\mathbf{x}$. Deduce that there exists a common basis transformation that diagonalises both matrices.

(iv) Show that $A$ and $B$ satisfy the conditions in (iii) and find a matrix $S$ such that both of the matrices $S^{-1} A S$ and $S^{-1} B S$ are diagonal.

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